Metalworking process summary
By jett NG | 04 May 2021 | 0 Comments

Metalworking process summary

Metalworking process summary


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1. What is the primary difference between CNC chiseling and CNC milling?


CNC cutting and CNC milling have adopted the principle of milling. The primary difference in the use of tool diameter, CNC milling machining commonly used tool diameter scale is 6-40 mm, while CNC carving processing tool diameter is 0.2-3 mm.


2. CNC milling processing can only do rough machining, CNC carving processing can only do fine machining?


Before answering this question, let's first look at the concept of process. Rough machining process of large processing quantity, finishing processing quantity is small, so some people will be used to rough machining is considered to be "heavy cutting", will be considered to be "light cutting". In practice, roughing, semi-finishing and finishing are concepts of process process, which represent different stages of processing. So, the correct answer to this question is that CNC milling can do both heavy and light cutting, while CNC carving can only do light cutting.


3. CNC carving processing can do rough processing of steel data?


Determining whether CNC carving processing can process some information, the first to see how big the tool can be. The tool used in CNC carving determines its maximum cutting capacity. If the mold shape allows the use of a tool with a diameter of more than 6 mm, it is strongly recommended to use CNC milling first, and then use the method of carving to remove the remaining information.


4 CNC machining center spindle to add a growth head can finish the carving processing?


It can't end. This product was presented in the exhibition two years ago, but it could not be finished. The first reason is that the CNC machining center planning to consider their own tool size, the overall structure is not suitable for carving processing. The primary reason for this misconception is that they mistook the high-speed motorized spindle as the sole feature of the carving machine.


5. CNC carving processing can use very small diameter tools, it can replace the EDM?


There is no substitute. Although machining reduces the size of the tool for milling, small molds that once could only be EDM can now be machined by machining. However, the length/diameter ratio of the carving tool is generally about 5:1. When small diameter tools are used, only very shallow cavities can be machined, whereas the EDM process has little cutting force, and the cavity can be machined as long as an electrode can be created.








6. What are the primary factors affecting carving and processing?


Mechanical processing is a more complex process, the influence of its elements are more, first of all, there are the following points: machine characteristics, cutting tools, control system, data characteristics, processing technology, auxiliary fixture and surrounding environment.


7. What are the requirements of CNC carving for the control system?


CNC carving processing is mainly milling processing, so it is necessary for the control system to have the control ability of milling processing. For small tool processing, it is necessary to supply the feed forward function, the way to reduce speed in advance, reduce the frequency of small tool break. Together with this, to improve the speed of the tool in the smooth path, and then improve the carving processing power.


8. What characteristics of the data will affect the processing?


The main factors that affect the function of data carving are data type, hardness and patience. The data category includes both metallic and non-metallic data. In general, the greater the hardness, the worse the workability, the greater the viscosity, the worse the workability. The more impurities, the worse the processability, the more hardness of particles inside the data, the worse the processability. A general specification is: the higher the carbon content, the worse the workability, the higher the alloy content, the worse the workability, the higher the content of non-metallic elements, the better the workability (but the general guess of the non-metallic content is strictly controlled).


9. What materials are suitable for carving and processing?


Suitable carved non-metallic data include plexiglass, resin, wood number, unsuitable carved non-metallic data include natural marble, glass, etc. Suitable carved metal materials include copper, aluminum, soft steel with hardness less than HRC40, and unsuitable carved metal materials include hardened steel, etc.


10. What is the influence of the tool itself on the processing, and how?


The factors affecting the cutting tool processing include the cutting tool data, how many parameters, grinding technology. The tool data used in carving processing is cemented carbide data, which is a kind of powder alloy. The primary functional index of the data function is the uniform diameter of the powder. The smaller the diameter, the more wear-resistant the tool, and the higher the tool durability. The sharpness of the tool primarily affects the cutting force. The sharper the tool, the smaller the cutting force, the smoother the process, the higher the appearance quality, but the lower the tool durability. Therefore, different sharpness should be selecte when processing different data. When processing soft and sticky data, the need for sharpness of the tool, when the hardness of the processing data is large, to reduce sharpness, improve the tool durability. But can not be too blunt, otherwise the cutting force will be too large, affecting the processing. The key factor of tool grinding is the number of mesh of grinding wheel. Grinding wheels with higher mesh sizes can produce finer cutting edges, which can effectively improve tool durability. High mesh grinding wheel can produce a smoother back surface, can improve the appearance of cutting quality.


11. What is the tool life formula?


The tool life is mainly the tool life in the process of steel data processing. The experience formula is :(T is the tool life, CT is the life parameter, VC is the cutting line speed, F is the amount of cutting per turn, P is the depth of cutting). The most important factor affecting tool life is cutting line velocity. In addition, tool radial runout, tool grinding quality, tool materials and coatings, and coolant can also affect tool durability.


12. In the process of processing, how to protect the carving machine tool equipment?


1) protect the tool setting instrument, do not let it be too much oil corrosion.


2) to pay attention to the control of flying chips, flying chips on the machine tool is very harmful, fly to the electric control cabinet will lead to a short circuit, fly to the guide rail will drop the life of the lead screw, guide rail, so in the processing, to the first part of the machine sealed.


3) when moving the lamp, do not pull the lamp holder, it is very simple to pull the lamp holder.


4) In the process of processing, do not close to the cutting area for observation, so as to avoid flying chip injury to the eyes. When the spindle motor is rotating, stop any operation on the table surface.


5) when the machine door is switched on and off, do not violently open and close. In finishing, the shock oscillation in the process of opening the door will lead to the appearance of the machining.


6) to the spindle speed, after the beginning of processing, otherwise due to the spindle start slow, resulting in not to reach the desired speed on the beginning of processing, so that the motor suffocated.


7) stop placing any tools or workpieces on the beam of the machine tool.


8) It is forbidden to place magnetic tools such as magnetic suckers and dial gauge holders on the electric control cabinet, otherwise the display will be damaged.


13. The phenomenon of holding back in the process of new knife processing is very laborious. What parameters need to be adjusted at this time?


The reason why processing is very laborious is that the power and torque of the spindle can not withstand the current cutting amount. The reasonable approach is to make a new way to reduce the depth of the cutting tool, the depth of slotting and the amount of trimming. If the overall processing time is less than 30 minutes, the cutting state can also be improved by adjusting the cutting speed.


14. What is the function of cutting fluid?


Pay attention to adding cooling oil in metal processing. The function of the cooling system is to take away the cutting heat and flying chips, and play a smooth role in processing. The coolant will cut the belt, reducing the heat to the tool and motor, improving their service life. Take the fly chip away to avoid the phenomenon of secondary cutting. Smoothing effect can reduce the cutting force and make the machining more stable. In copper processing, the choice of oil cutting fluid can improve the appearance quality.


15. What are the stages of tool wear?


Tool wear is divided into three stages: initial wear, normal wear, sharp wear. In the initial wear stage of the primary reason for tool wear is that the temperature of the tool is low, and has not reached the best cutting temperature, at this time, the tool wear is primarily abrasive wear, such wear on the tool is relatively large, very simple lead to tool collapse. This stage is a very risky stage, processing is not good, may directly lead to tool collapse knife failure. When the tool has gone through the initial wear period, the cutting temperature of the tool reaches a certain value, which is the primary wear is diffusion wear, its primary role is to lead to local peeling. As a result, wear is less and slower. When the wear to a certain extent, the tool failure, entered a period of sharp wear.


16. Why should the tool be run in, how to run in?


Above let's talk about the tool in the initial wear stage, very simple knife collapse, in order to avoid the phenomenon of knife collapse, we need to run in the tool. The cutting temperature of the tool is gradually increased to a reasonable temperature. The comparison with the same processing parameters is verified by experiments. It can be seen that after running in, the life of the tool has been increased by more than 2 times.


The way to run in is to reduce the feed speed by half under the condition of adhering to the reasonable spindle speed, and the processing time is about 5~10 minutes. Small value is used for processing soft data and large value is used for processing hard metal.


17. How to distinguish tool severe wear?


The method to distinguish severe tool wear is:


1) Listen to the processing sound and present a sharp cry;


2) Listen to the sound of the main shaft, the main shaft presents a significant phenomenon of holding back rotation;


3) The vibration increases during the sensory processing, and the spindle of the machine tool exhibits significant vibration;


4) look at the processing effect, the bottom surface of the processed cutter grain is good or bad (if the beginning stage is so clear that the depth of the knife is too deep).


18. When should I change the knife?


We should change the tool at about 2/3 of the limit value of the tool life. For example, the tool in 60 minutes show severe wear, the next processing, should be at the beginning of 40 minutes for knife, and develop the habit of punctuality for knife.


19 severe wear of the tool can continue to process?


After severe tool wear, the cutting force can increase to three times the normal. The cutting force has a great influence on the service life of spindle electrode, and the life of spindle motor and the force are inversely proportional to the third power. For example, when the cutting force increases by 3 times, 10 minutes of processing is equivalent to 10*33=270 minutes of use of the spindle under normal conditions.


20. How to determine the extension length of the tool in rough machining?


The shorter the extension length of the cutter, the better. However, in practice, if it is too short, it is necessary to adjust the length of the tool frequently, which affects the processing power too much. So how to control the extension length of the tool in practice? The principle is this: Φ3 diameter of the knife rod out 5mm can be normal processing. Φ4 diameter tool rod extended 7mm can be normal processing. Φ6 diameter tool rod extended 10mm can be normal processing. Try to go below these values on the knife. If the length of the knife is greater than the above value, try to control the depth of processing when the tool wear, which is a little difficult to grasp, the need for more exercise

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